Mount Semeru, is an active volcano in East Java, Indonesia. It is located in the subduction zone, where the Indo-Australia plate subducts under the Eurasia plate. It is the highest mountain on the island of Java. This stratovolcano is also known as Mahameru, meaning ‘The Great Mountain.The name derived from the Hindu cosmology’s mountain of Meru or Sumeru, the abode of gods. Mount Semeru is one of the most popular hiking destinations in Indonesia.
Semeru’s eruptive history is extensive. Since 1818, at least 55 eruptions have been recorded (10 of which resulted in fatalities) consisting of both lava flows and pyroclastic flows. All historical eruptions have had a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of 2 or 3. Semeru has been in a state of near-constant eruption from 1967 to the present. At times, small eruptions happen every 20 minutes.
Semeru is named from Sumeru, the central world-mountain in Hinduism. As stated in legend, it was transplanted from India; the tale is recorded in the 15th-century East Javanese work Tantu Pagelaran. It was originally placed in the western part of the island, but that caused the island to tip, so it was moved eastward. On that journey, parts kept coming off the lower rim, forming the mountains Lawu, Wilis, Kelud, Kawi, Arjuno and Welirang. The damage thus caused to the foot of the mountain caused it to shake, and the top came off and created Penanggungan as well. Indonesian Hindus also hold a belief that the mountain is the abode of Shiva in Java.